Butterflies in Mind -- Zinnia
Susan C. Dunlap
A collection of 50 images as if seen from a butterfly’s point of view. Includes the names of native Zinnia species and the most complete list of US butterflies that will feed on Zinnia blossoms.
Butterflies in Mind -- Asclepias
Susan C. Dunlap
“Milkweed is the single most important plant for Monarch butterflies. This lavishly illustrated book contains details about the structure and cultivation of native Milkweeds, information about the 139 nectar-feeding butterflies they...
Butterflies in Mind -- Monarch
Susan C. Dunlap
This abundantly illustrated volume enables you to select from a complete list of well described perennial nectar plants that are known to attract & feed Monarch butterflies. Over 40 genera are described that are suitable to be grown...
Butterflies in Mind -- Perennials
Susan C. Dunlap
Butterflies in Mind - Perennials. This book is a definitive guide to perennial nectar plants preferred by US butterflies. It empowers you to feed, attract, support (and help identify) nectar-feeding butterflies that reside in the US....

Monarda didyma

Family: Lamiaceae


Native to: Canada, United States


Type: perennial

Forms: clumping, erect, open form

Leaves deciduous

Max height: 4 feet

Max width: 3 feet






Attracts wildlife: adult butterfly, bee, bird, hummingbird, specific butterfly species

Plant part consumed by birds: nectar

Plant features: deciduous

Exposure: light shade, sun

Landscape uses: container, deer resistant

Propagates by: seed

flowers in fall

flowers in summer

Soil type: well drained

USDA Zones: zone 4 -30 f, zone 5 to -20 f, zone 6 to -10 f, zone 7 to 0 f, zone 8 to +10 f, zone 9 to +20 f

Temp. range: -30 to +30 °F

Water: moist, regular

There are 31 species of Monarda, a member of the Lamiaceae family, also called BEEBALM, BERGAMOT, or HORSEMINT. Monarda didyma is in cultivation; it grows to 4 feet tall in Zones 4-9 and flowers in summer and fall. Other species – Monarda citriodora (a reseeding annual to 3 feet tall), M. fistulosa (to 3 feet tall), and M. media (a 3 foot tall naturalizing plant) – may be robust and attractive to wildlife; they flower in summer. Monarda prefers regular or moist watering. Bees, birds, and hummingbirds will also come to these plants for nectar.

Monarda attracts Neophasia menapia, PINE WHITE.
in addition, Monarda didyma attracts Battus philenor, PIPEVINE SWALLOWTAIL, and Speyeria cybele, GREAT SPANGLED FRITILLARY.

Container plants that attract adult butterflies - perennial

This plant can be grown in a container and will attract and feed adult butterflies. These plant can be found in every height range – from tiny to large – from less than a foot high to over 10 feet tall.

Our database of nectar plants for all US butterflies contains over 10,000 entries. The top five nectar plants -- Cirsium, Lantana, Asclepias, Salvia, and Verbena -- will appeal to 90% of all US butterflies. Pick from these if you want to provide nectar for your local butterflies.

Once you start with these, you can add from another 630 genera in 110 plant families to attract more insects to your garden.

By far the most import butterfly nectar plant family is Asteraceae. If you grow plants in from this family, butterflies will find your garden.