Butterflies in Mind -- Zinnia
Susan C. Dunlap
A collection of 50 images as if seen from a butterfly’s point of view. Includes the names of native Zinnia species and the most complete list of US butterflies that will feed on Zinnia blossoms.
Butterflies in Mind -- Asclepias
Susan C. Dunlap
“Milkweed is the single most important plant for Monarch butterflies. This lavishly illustrated book contains details about the structure and cultivation of native Milkweeds, information about the 139 nectar-feeding butterflies they...
Butterflies in Mind -- Monarch
Susan C. Dunlap
This abundantly illustrated volume enables you to select from a complete list of well described perennial nectar plants that are known to attract & feed Monarch butterflies. Over 40 genera are described that are suitable to be grown...
Butterflies in Mind -- Perennials
Susan C. Dunlap
Butterflies in Mind - Perennials. This book is a definitive guide to perennial nectar plants preferred by US butterflies. It empowers you to feed, attract, support (and help identify) nectar-feeding butterflies that reside in the US....

Barbarea vulgaris

Family: Cruciferae

Native to: Europe


Types: biennial, perennial

Forms: clumping, erect

Max height: 3.3 feet

Max width: 2 feet






Attracts wildlife: adult butterfly, bee, specific butterfly species

Plant features: invasive, weedy

Edible: vegetable

Exposure: part shade, sun

Landscape use: container



Propagates by: seed

flowers in spring

flowers in summer

Soil type: wide range

USDA Zones: zone 4 -30 f, zone 5 to -20 f, zone 6 to -10 f, zone 7 to 0 f, zone 8 to +10 f, zone 9 to +20 f

Temp. range: -30 to +30 °F

Water: dry, moderate

There are 29 species of Barbarea. It is a member of the Brassicaceae family and is commonly called WINTER CRESS.

Barbarea vulgaris is cultivated and easily grown from seed in Zones 4-9. This plant is edible either raw or cooked. It grows to nearly 3 ½ feet tall in dry to moderate watering conditions, and blooms in spring and summer. It can be grown in a container - an 18-24" or larger container is advised as the plant is rather tall. This plant may prove to be a wildlife magnet to your garden, but be careful, as it can be weedy and is on invasive plant lists in some states. The good news is that it is wildly attractive to bees and the seeds are not air-born.

Barbarea appeals to Phyciodes tharos, Pearl Crescent, and Erynnis icelus, Dreamy Duskywing. Both of these butterflies have a broad range.

Container plants that attract adult butterflies - perennial

This plant can be grown in a container and will attract and feed adult butterflies. These plant can be found in every height range – from tiny to large – from less than a foot high to over 10 feet tall.

Our database of nectar plants for all US butterflies contains over 10,000 entries. The top five nectar plants -- Cirsium, Lantana, Asclepias, Salvia, and Verbena -- will appeal to 90% of all US butterflies. Pick from these if you want to provide nectar for your local butterflies.

Once you start with these, you can add from another 630 genera in 110 plant families to attract more insects to your garden.

By far the most import butterfly nectar plant family is Asteraceae. If you grow plants in from this family, butterflies will find your garden.